FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
TYPE 2 OUTCOMES OF WSSD
What are Type 2 outcomes?
Non-negotiated partnerships and initiatives
to implement Agenda 21 are expected to become an important element of the
outcomes from the World Summit on Sustainable Development. The Summit will not
only result in a high-level political declaration and a programme of action for
the further implementation of Agenda 21, which are fully negotiated and agreed
by all governments (Type 1 outcomes). Type 2 partnerships will also become an
integral part of the Summit, even though they will not be negotiated by all
present. Rather, they need only be agreed by those directly involved, who will
commit themselves to taking the partnerships forward and making them a success.
What is the purpose of
partnerships or Type 2 outcomes of WSSD?
partnerships would enable all stakeholders to make concrete contribution to the
outcome of the Summit by launching implementation initiatives. Secondly, these
partnerships are expected to improve the quality of implementation by involving
those stakeholders whose activities have direct impact on sustainable
development. The need to actively engage these actors in implementation has
become more pressing in view of the changes brought by globalization. These
partnerships will provide an effective vehicle to promote sustainable
development in a globalizing world.
Are these partnerships meant to
provide a substitute for actions and commitments by governments?
No, certainly not. There is no substitute
for governmental action. Commitments by governments are the corner stone of
national, regional and global efforts to pursue sustainable development. Agenda
21 is a testimony to that fact.
However, to pursue the goals of Agenda 21 in a global setting that is
considerably different from 1992 there is a need to broaden and strengthen the
role of major groups in implementation. The partnerships are meant to
supplement and not to supplant actions and commitments by governments.
How are these linked with Type
1 or globally agreed outcomes of the Summit?
Type 2 outcomes or partnerships share the
same objectives as Type 1 outcomes and that is implementation of Agenda 21.
However, direct linkages in terms of modalities and goals may differ from issue
to issue. On certain issues, a broad political agreement in Type 1 could
provide basis for launching Type 2 outcomes. In other instances, the agreed
document might contain details of the implementation initiatives that would
provide a direct link for partnerships. Given the broad range of issues being
negotiated, it would not be difficult to link a Type 2 initiative with the
negotiated outcome. While maintaining the flexibility of these linkages, it
would be possible to somehow anchor all Type 2 outcomes in Type 1 outcomes.
How will the partnerships be
governed or managed? Who will run or own them?
The partnerships will be governed by
partners through a mutually agreed mechanism. The governance mechanisms may
vary from partnership to partnership. These structures could be built along the
lines of existing partnerships like the Global Alliance on Vaccine and
Immunization (GAVI), the
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), the International
AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) etc. These partnerships will be owned and run by
the partners themselves.
How are the partners selected?
These are voluntary initiatives. There is
no formal selection process. Interested parties can get together and launch
implementation initiatives to achieve the goals of sustainable
How will the partnerships be
selected to become part of the outcomes of WSSD? Are there criteria for
There are no strictly defined criteria for
selection of Type 2 outcomes. However, there are certain basic requirements
that each partnership is expected to fulfil. Such partnerships should be
regional or international in their scope. They should clearly define their
targets, expected results and timeframe, arrangements for funding, monitoring
arrangements, coordination and implementation mechanisms. These requirements
were listed in the form/table circulated by the Chairman of the PrepCom last
February, which is available at the official web site (www.
Johannesburgsummit.org) of the Johannesburg Summit.
While maintaining this flexible framework
for including partnerships into Type 2 outcomes, the Bureau of the PrepCom will
review the information provided by the partners and determine whether all the
requirements have been met.
How will the performance of
partnerships be monitored or reviewed? What will be the accountability
mechanism to ensure that partnerships are contributing to the goals of
Partnerships will be self-governing bodies
with their own accountability mechanisms. It is expected that all Type 2
outcomes will have effective monitoring mechanisms to evaluate their
performance. They are supposed to review their performance against the goals
that they set for themselves. But
they are also part of the implementation process in the post-Johannesburg
phase. All those partnerships that become part of the Type 2 outcomes are
expected to keep the Commission on Sustainable Development informed of their
activities and progress in achieving targets.
Proposals for specific arrangements within
CSD are part of the sustainable development governance discussion. One option
could be to transform the inter-sessional adhoc working groups of CSD into
implementation groups and provide a forum for dialogue on Type 2 outcomes.
How will these partnerships be
presented at the Summit?
All those partnerships that are deemed to
fulfil the requirements will be part of the Type 2 outcomes. Some of them could
be presented at the Summit. Specific modalities to provide opportunities for partners to make such announcements
during the first week (26-31August) of the Johannesburg Summit will be
considered and finalized at the fourth session of the Prepcom to be held in
Bali (27 May-7June).
Are there any themes or areas
specified for initiating these partnerships?
No. Partnerships can be launched on any
area related to sustainable development, particularly the implementation of
Agenda 21. It is, however, expected that partnerships will be closely linked
with the negotiated outcome of the Summit.