국제연대 관련자료

4차 준비회의 의장보고서(영)(2002년 5월 24일)

266_0523 4차 준비회의 의장보고서(영).doc

9 May 2002
Advance Unedited Text
Commission on Sustainable Development
Acting as the Preparatory Committee for the
World Summit for Sustainable Development
Fourth Session
Chairman’s Text for Negotiation
I. Introduction
1. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de
Janeiro in 1992, provided the fundamental principles and the programme of action for
achieving sustainable development. We strongly reaffirm our commitment to the Rio
principles, the full implementation of Agenda 21 and the Programme for the Further
Implementation of Agenda 21. We also commit ourselves to achieving the internationally
agreed development goals, including those contained in the United Nations Millennium
Declaration and the outcomes of the major UN Conferences and international agreements
since 1992.
2. This plan of implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development will
further build on the achievements made since Rio and expedite the realization of the
remaining goals. To this end, we commit ourselves to undertake concrete actions and
measures at all levels, bearing in mind the principle of common but differentiated
responsibilities. These efforts will also promote the integration of the three components
of sustainable development: economic growth, social development and environmental
protection, as mutually reinforcing pillars. Poverty eradication and changing
unsustainable patterns of production and consumption are overarching objectives of
sustainable development and an essential requirement for promoting environmental
protection.
3. We recognize that the implementation of the outcomes of WSSD should benefit
all, particularly women, youth and vulnerable groups. Furthermore, the implementation
should involve all relevant actors through partnerships, especially between governments
of the North and South on the one hand, and between governments and major groups on the
other, to achieve the widely shared goals of sustainable development. Such partnerships
are key to pursuing sustainable development in a globalizing world.
4. Good governance within each country and at the international level is essential
for sustainable development. At the domestic level, sound environmental, social and
economic policies, democratic institutions responsive to the needs of the people, rule of
law, anti-corruption measures, gender equity and enabling environment for investment are
the basis for sustainable development. As a result of globalization, external factors
have become critical in determining the success or failure of developing countries in
their national efforts. The gap between developed and developing countries point to the
continued need for a dynamic and enabling international economic environment supportive
of international cooperation, particularly in the field of finance, technology transfer,
debt and trade, full and effective participation of developing countries in global
decision-making, if the momentum for global progress towards sustainable development is
to be maintained and increased.
5. Peace, security, and stability are essential for achieving sustainable
development and ensuring that sustainable development benefits all.
II. Poverty eradication
6. Eradicating poverty is the greatest global challenge facing the world today and
an indispensable requirement for sustainable development, particularly for developing
countries. While each country has primary responsibility for its own sustainable
development and poverty eradication, concerted and concrete measures are required to
achieve the internationally agreed poverty-related targets, including the Millennium
Development Goals. Actions at the international, regional and national levels are
required to accomplish these targets.
7. Achieve the Millennium Declaration poverty-related goals, including the
reduction by half, by 2015, of the proportion of people whose income is below $1 per day,
the number of people suffering from hunger, and proportion of people without access to
safe drinking water. This would include international, regional and national actions to:
(a) Establish a World Solidarity Fund for Poverty Eradication and the Promotion of
Human Development in the poorest regions of the World, pursuant to modalities to be
determined by the General Assembly;
(b) Develop national programme for sustainable development and community
development to promote the empowerment of people living in poverty and their
organizations. These programmes should reflect their priorities, and enable them to
increase access to productive resources, public services and institutions, in particular
land, water, employment opportunities, credit, education, and health;
(c) Promote women’s participation in decision making at all levels, mainstreaming
gender perspectives in all policies and strategies, eliminating all forms of violence and
discrimination against women, and improving the status, health and economic welfare of
women and girls through full and equal access to economic opportunity, credit, education,
health care and services;
(d) Deliver basic health services for all and reduce environmental health threats,
taking into account the linkages between poverty, health and environment, with provision
of financial resources, technical assistance and knowledge transfer to developing
countries and countries with economies in transition;
(e) Ensure children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a
full course of primary schooling and they will have equal access to all levels of
education;
(f) Provide access to other agricultural resources, for people living in poverty,
especially women, and promote, as appropriate, land tenure arrangements that recognize
and protect indigenous and common property resource management systems;
(g) Build basic rural infrastructure, diversify the economy, improve access to
markets and to credit for the rural poor to support sustainable agriculture and rural
development;
(h) Transfer of basic sustainable agricultural techniques and knowledge, including
natural resource management, to small and medium-scale farmers, fishers and the rural
poor, including through multi-stakeholder approaches and public-private partnerships
aimed at increasing agriculture production and food security;
(i) Increase food availability and affordability, including through harvest and
food technology and management, as well as equitable and efficient distribution systems,
by promoting for example, community-based partnerships linking urban and rural people and
enterprises;
(j) Combat desertification, drought and floods through improved land management,
agricultural practices and ecosystem conservation, in order to reverse current trends of
degradation of land and water resources, including through the provision of adequate and
predictable financial resources to implement the UNCCD as one of the prime tools for
poverty eradication.
8. Launch an action programme, with financial and technical assistance from
developed countries, to halve by 2015 the proportion of people lacking access to improved
sanitation, through the development and implementation of efficient sanitation systems
and infrastructure while safeguarding human health.
9. Launch an action programme to reduce by half the number of people who currently
lack access to modern energy services. This would include international, regional and
national actions to:
(a) Utilize financial instruments and mechanisms, to provide financial resources to
developing countries, to meet their capacity needs and strengthen national institutions
in energy, including promoting energy efficiency, advanced fossil fuel technologies and
renewable energy;
(b) Improve access to energy services in rural and semi-urban areas through rural
electrification and decentralized energy systems, by intensifying regional and
international cooperation in support of national efforts;
(c) Develop regional plans of action to facilitate cross-border energy trade,
including the interconnection of electricity grids and oil and natural gas pipeline;
(d) Develop and utilize locally available and indigenous energy sources and
infrastructures for various local uses, where considered more environmentally sound,
socially acceptable and cost-effective, with increasing use of renewable energy
resources, including through community-based development methods, with the support of the
international community, to meet the daily energy needs and to find simple and local
solutions;
(e) Improve access to modern biomass technologies and fuel wood sources and
supplies, and commercialise biomass operations, including the use of agricultural
residues, where such practices are sustainable;
(f) Strengthen and, where appropriate, establish policies on energy for rural
development, including, as appropriate, regulatory systems to promote access to energy in
rural and semi-urban areas;
(g) Enhance international and regional cooperation to improve access to energy
services, as an integral part of poverty reduction programmes.
10. Strengthen the contribution of industrial development to poverty eradication
and sustainable natural resource management. This would include international, regional
and national actions to:
(a) Provide assistance to enhance industrial productivity and competitiveness as
well as industrial development in developing countries;
(b) Promote the development of micro, small and medium size enterprises, with a
special focus on agro-industry as a provider of livelihoods for rural communities;
(c) Provide financial and technological support to rural communities of developing
countries to enable them to benefit from small-scale mining ventures; and
(d) Provide support to developing countries for the development of low-cost
technologies that conserve fuel for cooking and water heating.
11. Achieve the Millennium Declaration goal of improving the lives of at least 100
million slum dwellers by 2020. This would include international and national actions to:
(a) Improve access to adequate shelter and basic social services for the rural and
urban poor, with special attention to female heads of household;
(b) Use low-cost and sustainable materials and appropriate technologies for the
construction of adequate housing for the poor, with financial and technological
assistance to developing countries, taking into account their culture, climate and
specific social conditions;
(c) Increase employment, credit and income for the urban poor;
(d) Remove unnecessary regulatory and other obstacles for micro-enterprises and the
informal sector.
III. Changing unsustainable patterns of consumption and production
12. Fundamental changes in the way societies produce and consume are indispensable
for achieving global sustainable development. All countries should strive to promote
sustainable consumption and production patterns, with the developed countries taking the
lead, and with all countries benefiting from the process, based on the principle of
common but differentiated responsibilities. Governments, relevant international
organisations, the private sector and all major groups should play a critical role in
striving to change unsustainable consumption and production patterns. This would require
urgent action at the international, regional and national levels to:
13. Develop a ten-year work programme for improving resource efficiency in order to
promote social and economic development within the carrying capacity of ecosystems, while
reducing resource degradation. The work programme should also include indicators for
measuring progress, using environmental impact assessment procedures, and bearing in mind
that standards applied by some countries may be inappropriate for others and of
unwarranted economic and social cost to other countries, in particular developing
countries. This would include international, regional and national actions to:
(a) Adopt and implement policies and measures aimed at promoting sustainable
patterns of production and consumption, applying the polluter-pays principle, with due
regard to the public interest and without distorting international trade and investment;
(b) Develop production policies using a life-cycle approach to improve the services
provided while reducing environmental and health impacts;
(c) Develop awareness raising programmes on the importance of sustainable
production and consumption patterns, particularly among the richer segments in all
countries, especially in developed countries, through education, public and consumer
information, advertising and other media, taking into account local, national and
regional cultural values;
(d) Develop voluntary, transparent, verifiable, non-misleading and non-
discriminatory consumer information tools, such as eco-labeling, to provide information
relating to sustainable production and consumption
14. Increase investment in cleaner production and eco-efficiency in all countries
through incentives and support schemes. This would include international, regional and
national actions to:
(a) Develop a concrete action plan to increase energy and resource efficiency, with
developed countries taking the lead, and with financial support and transfer of
technology to developing countries and countries with economies in transition, in
cooperation with relevant international organizations;
(b) Establish and support cleaner production programmes and centres and more
efficient production methods by providing incentive, capacity building to assist
enterprises specially small and medium enterprises in developing countries to improve
productivity and sustainable development;
(c) Provide incentives for investment in cleaner production and eco-efficiency in
all countries such as state-financed loans, venture capital, technical assistance and
training programmes for small and medium-sized companies, while avoiding trade-distorting
measures inconsistent with WTO rules;
(d) Collect and disseminate information on cost-effective examples in cleaner
production, eco-efficiency and environmental management, and promote the exchange of best
practices and know-how on environmentally sound technologies between public and private
institutions;
(e) Provide training programmes to small and medium-sized enterprises on the use of
information and communication technologies.
15. Enhance corporate, environmental and social responsibility and accountability.
This would include international, regional and national actions to:
(a) Encourage industry to improve social and environmental performance through
voluntary initiatives, including environmental management systems, codes of conduct,
certification, and public reporting on environmental and social issues, taking into
account such initiatives as the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
standards and the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines on sustainability
reporting, bearing in mind Principle 11 of the Rio Declaration;
(b) Encourage dialogue between enterprises and the communities in which they
operate and other stakeholders;
(c) Encourage financial institutions to incorporate sustainability considerations
into their decision-making processes;
(d) Develop workplace-based partnerships and programmes, including training and
education programmes.
16. Provide training for relevant authorities at all levels to take sustainability
considerations into account in decision-making, including on national investment in
infrastructure, business development and public procurement. Further actions at
international, regional and national levels are required to:
(a) Use economic instruments and market incentives, such as policies to internalise
external costs where appropriate, while seeking to avoid potential negative effects for
market access, especially for developing countries;
(b) Reduce and eliminate environmentally harmful and trade-distorting subsidies
that inhibit sustainable consumption and production patterns in developed countries;
(c) Promote public procurement policies that encourage development and diffusion of
environmentally sound goods and services.
17. Promote the implementation of the recommendations and conclusions of the ninth
session of the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD-9) on energy for sustainable
development relevant to the respective domestic situations, bearing in mind the principle
of common but differentiated responsibilities, and taking into account that energy is
central to achieving the goals of sustainable development; actions at the International,
regional, and national levels are required to:
(a) Provide the appropriate means, namely adequate and predictable new and
additional financial resources in accordance with chapter 33 of Agenda 21 and paragraphs
76 to 87 of the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21, as well as the
transfer of environmentally sound technologies and capacity-building, in order to ensure
such implementation by developing countries;
(b) Integrate energy considerations into socio-economic programmes, especially into
policies of major energy-consuming sectors, such as the public, transport, industry,
agriculture, urban planning and construction sectors;
(c) Develop and disseminate renewable energy and advanced fossil fuel technologies
with the aim of increasing their share in energy production and consumption for both
domestic and industrial uses;
(d) Diversify the energy supply mix by combining, as appropriate, increased use of
renewable energy sources, more efficient use of energy, greater reliance on advanced
energy technologies including advanced and cleaner fossil fuel technologies, and
sustainable use of traditional energy resources, to meet the growing needs for energy
services in the longer term to achieve sustainable development, as well as promote the
development of technologies for improving control of the distribution system and
encourage further development and implementation of national goals to that end;
(e) Support the transition to the use of liquid and gaseous fossil fuels, where
considered more environmentally sound, socially acceptable and cost-effective;
(f) Establish domestic programmes for energy efficiency, including, as appropriate,
by accelerating the deployment of energy efficiency technologies, with the necessary
support of the international community;
(g) Integrate, as appropriate, energy efficiency considerations into the planning,
operation and maintenance of long-lived energy consuming infrastructures, notably
transport, urban land use, industry, agriculture and tourism;
(h) Accelerate the development, diffusion and deployment of affordable and cleaner
energy efficiency and energy conservation technologies as well as the transfer of such
technologies, in particular to developing countries, on favourable terms, including on
concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed;
(i) Strengthen national and regional research and development institutions/centres
on energy for sustainable development, including renewable energy technologies, energy
efficiency, advanced energy technologies including advanced fossil fuel technologies, and
sustainable use of traditional energy resources;
(j) Promote education to provide information for both men and women about available
energy sources and technologies;
(k) Support efforts to improve the functioning of energy markets with respect to
both supply and demand, with the aim of achieving greater stability and predictability
and to ensure consumer access to energy services;
(l) Promote policies to reduce market distortions in order to achieve energy
systems compatible with sustainable development through the use of improved market
signals and by removing market distortions, including restructuring taxation and phasing
out of harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, with
such policies taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing
countries, with the aim of minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development;
(m) Encourage Governments to improve the functioning of national energy markets in
such a way that they support sustainable development, overcome market barriers and
improve accessibility, taking fully into account that such policies should be decided by
each country, and that its own characteristics and capabilities and level of development
should be considered, especially as reflected in national sustainable development
strategies, where they exist;
(n) Strengthen national and regional energy institutions or arrangements for
enhancing regional and international cooperation on energy for sustainable development,
in particular to assist developing countries in their domestic efforts to provide modern
energy services to all sections of their populations;
(o) Strengthen and facilitate, as appropriate, regional cooperation arrangements
for promoting cross-border energy trade, including the interconnection of electricity
grids and oil and natural gas pipelines;
(p) Strengthen and, where appropriate, facilitate dialogue forums among regional,
national and international producers and consumers of energy;
(q) Enhance international cooperation in order to assist countries, in particular
developing countries, in their efforts to achieve energy for sustainable development;
(r) Promote networking between centres of excellence on energy for sustainable
development, including regional networks, by linking competent centres on energy
technologies for sustainable development that could support and promote efforts at
capacity-building and technology transfer activities, as well as serve as information
clearing houses;
(s) Promote international public-private partnership cooperation programmes for
promoting affordable, energy efficient and advanced fossil fuel and renewable energy
technologies.
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18. Promote an integrated approach to policy making at national and regional levels
for transport services and systems to promote sustainable development, including policies
and planning for land use, infrastructure, public transport systems and goods delivery
networks, with a view to providing efficient transportation, reducing energy consumption
and pollution, reducing congestion, limiting urban sprawl, and promoting long-term
sustainable development, taking into account national priorities and circumstances.
Actions at the International, regional, and national levels are required to:
(a) Implement transport strategies for sustainable development, reflecting specific
regional, national and local conditions, so as to improve the affordability, efficiency
and convenience of transportation, as well as improving urban air quality and public
health, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by developed countries,
(b) Promote investment and partnerships for the development of sustainable multi-
modal public mass transportation systems, and better transportation systems in rural
areas, with technical and financial assistance for developing countries and countries
with economies in transition;
(c) Implement transport strategies that reflect specific national and local
condition so as to improve the efficiency and convenience of transportation and that
improve urban air quality and pubic health;
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19. Prevent and minimize waste and to maximize re-use and recycling, with
participation of Government, and all stakeholders, in order to improve resource-
efficiency, with assistance for developing countries. This would include international,
regional and national actions to:
(a) Develop waste management systems and disposal facilities, including technology
to recapture the energy in the waste, and encourage small-scale waste recycling
initiatives that support urban and rural waste management and provide income-generating
opportunities, with international support to developing countries;
(b) Promote waste prevention by encouraging production of reusable consumer goods
and biodegradable products.
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20. Renew the commitment to sound management of chemicals throughout their life
cycle for sustainable development for the protection of human health and the environment.
This would include international, regional and national actions to:
(a) Promote the ratification and implementation of relevant international
instruments on chemicals and wastes;
(b) Further develop a strategic approach to international chemicals management
based on the Bahia Declaration and Priorities for Action Beyond 2000 of the
Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS) and urge the active engagement of
relevant International Agencies and other relevant actors in this regard;
(c) Encourage countries to implement the new globally harmonized system (GHS) for
the classification and labeling of chemicals as soon as possible;
(d) Encourage partnerships to promote activities aimed at enhancing environmentally
sound management of chemicals, implementing multilateral environmental agreements,
raising awareness of issues relating to chemicals and hazardous waste, and encouraging
the collection and use of additional scientific data;
(e) Promote efforts to prevent damage resulting from the transboundary movement and
disposal of hazardous wastes, including illegal trafficking, in a manner consistent with
obligations under relevant international instruments;
(f) Support developing countries in strengthening their capacity for the sound
management of chemicals by providing technical and financial assistance;
(g) Encourage development of coherent and integrated information on chemicals, such
as through national Pollutant Release and Transfer Registries;
(h) Promote further reduction of risks posed by heavy metals and consider the
possibility of addressing heavy metals in an international instrument.
IV. Protecting and managing the natural resource base of economic and social
development
21. Human activities are having an increasing impact on the integrity of ecosystems
that provide essential resources and services for human well being and economic
activities. Managing the natural resources base in a sustainable and integrated manner
is essential for sustainable development. In this regard, it is necessary to implement
strategies to protect all ecosystems and to achieve integrated management of land, water
and living resources, while strengthening regional, national and local capacities.
22. Achieve the UN Millennium Declaration goal to halve, by the year 2015, the
proportion of people who are unable to reach or afford safe drinking water. This would
require international, regional and national efforts to:
(a) Mobilize international and domestic financial resources at all levels and
transfer of technology and capacity-building for water and sanitation infrastructure and
services development, ensuring that such infrastructure and services meet the needs of
the poor and are gender-sensitive;
(b) Facilitate access to public information and participation at all levels in
support of policy and decision-making related to water resources management and project
implementation as well as empower women;
(c) Renew commitments by Governments and other stakeholders to priority action in
water governance and capacity building at all levels, and provide new and additional
financial resources and innovative technologies to implement Chapter 18 of Agenda 21;
(d) Intensify water pollution prevention to reduce health hazards and protect
ecosystems by introducing technologies for affordable sanitation, waste water treatment,
monitoring and effective legal frameworks;
(e) Adopt prevention and protection measures against water shortages and water
pollution, including the discharge of polluting substances, and promote wastewater
treatment technologies, including ecological sanitation.
23. Support developing countries in developing integrated water resources
management and water efficiency plans by 2005, through actions to:
(a) Develop and implement national/regional strategies, plans and programmes with
regard to integrated river basin, watershed and groundwater management as well as
introduce measures to improve the efficiency of water infrastructure to reduce losses and
increase recycling of water;
(b) Employ the full range of policy instruments, including regulation, monitoring,
voluntary measures, market and information-based tools, land-use management and cost
recovery of water services, and adopt an integrated water basin approach;
(c) Improve the efficient use of water resources and promote its allocation among
competitive uses in a way that balances the requirement of preserving or restoring
ecological integrity, in particular in fragile environments, with human domestic,
industrial and agriculture needs, including safeguarding drinking water quality;
(d) Develop programmes for mitigation of the effects of extreme water-related
events;
(e) Provide technical and financial support for the diffusion of technology and
capacity building for non-conventional water resources and conservation technologies, to
developing countries and regions facing water scarcity conditions or subject to drought
and desertification.
(f) Facilitate the establishment of public-private partnerships by providing stable
and transparent regulatory frameworks, involving all concerned stakeholders, and
monitoring the performance and improving accountability of public institutions and
private companies.
24. Support developing countries and countries with economies in transition in
their efforts to monitor and assess the quantity and quality of water resources,
including through the establishment of national monitoring networks and water resources
databases and the development of relevant national indicators. Improve water resource
management and scientific understanding of the water cycle through cooperation in joint
observation and research on a global scale and encourage, and promote capacity building
and the transfer of technology, including remote-sensing and satellite technologies, for
this purpose.
25. Support and enhance regional, sub-regional, and bilateral cooperation
initiatives undertaken by States on international watercourses according to international
law, where applicable, and bilateral and regional and international agreements, where
existing, and achieve cooperation among all the riparian States to ensure the effective
development, management, protection and use or water resources, taking into account the
interests of all riparian States concerned;
26. Promote closer coordination among the various international and
intergovernmental bodies working on water-related issues, both within the UN system and
between the UN, international financial institutions, benefiting from the contributions
of civil society to inform the decision making and to support, elaborate proposals and
undertake activities on the activities leading to the International Year of Freshwater
2003 and beyond.
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27. Oceans, seas and coastal areas form an integrated and essential component of
the earth’s ecosystem and are critical sources of food for many people, particularly in
developing countries. They also provide vital resources for the sustainable development
of industries such as fisheries, aquaculture and tourism. For many of the world’s
fishing areas, however, fish stocks have been fully or over exploited due to growing
pressures from over-fishing and environmental degradation. This would require
international, regional and national actions to:
(a) Ratify or accede to and fully implement the United Nations Convention on the
Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which provides the overall legal framework for ocean activities;
(b) Promote the implementation of Chapter 17 of Agenda 21 that provides the
programme of action for achieving sustainable development of oceans and seas;
(c) Promote effective coordination and cooperation on oceans issues, including at
the global and regional levels between relevant bodies and establish an effective,
transparent and regular inter-agency coordination mechanism on ocean and coastal issues
within the United Nations system;
(d) Strengthen regional cooperation and coordination between the relevant regional
organisations and programmes, the UNEP regional seas programmes, fisheries management
organisations and other regional science, health and development organisation;
(e) Assist developing countries to coordinate policies and programmes at the
regional and sub-regional levels aimed at conserving and managing fishery resources and
implementing integrated coastal area management (ICAM) plans, including through the
promotion of sustainable coastal and traditional fishing activities and, where
appropriate, for the construction of fishing villages as well as unloading points along
the coast.
28. Reverse the decline in depleted fish stocks and maintain or restore populations
to levels that can produce the optimum sustainable yield through, actions at the
international, regional and national levels to:
(a) Ratify or accede to and effectively implement the relevant United Nations and,
where appropriate, associated regional fisheries agreements or arrangements including the
1995 FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, taking into account the special
requirements of developing countries;
(b) Develop and implement on an urgent basis, national and, where appropriate,
regional plans of action, to put into effect the FAO International Plans of Action to
Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing by 2010, as a
means of addressing over-capacity of fishing, including through effective monitoring,
compliance and enforcement, and control, including by flag States;
(c) Eliminate subsidies that contribute to illegal, unreported and unregulated
fishing and over-capacity, while completing the efforts undertaken at the WTO to clarify
and improve its disciplines on fisheries subsidies, taking into account the importance of
this sector to developing countries;
(d) Strengthen donor coordination and partnerships between international financial
institutions, bilateral agencies and other relevant stakeholders, to enable developing
countries, in particular the least developed countries and small island developing states
and countries with economies in transition to develop their national, regional and sub-
regional capacities for infrastructure and integrated management and sustainable use of
fisheries.
29. Promote the conservation and sustainable management of marine living resources
through actions at the international, regional and national levels to:
(a) Maintain the productivity and biodiversity of important and vulnerable marine
and coastal areas, including in areas beyond national jurisdiction;
(b) Implement the work programme arising from the Jakarta Mandate on the
Conservation and Sustainable Use of Marine and Coastal Biological Diversity of the
Convention on Biological Diversity, including through the urgent mobilisation of
financial resources and technological assistance and development of human and
institutional capacity, particularly in developing countries;
(c) Develop and facilitate the use of diverse approaches for the conservation and
sustainable management of marine living resources, including the elimination of
destructive fishing practices, establishment of marine protected areas and representative
networks, proper land use planning, biological rest periods and the integration of marine
and coastal areas protection into key sectors;
(d) Implement the programme of action called for by the International Coral Reef
Initiative and promote international networking of wetland ecosystems in coastal zones
aimed at the protection and management of coral reefs.
30. Advance implementation of the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of
the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities (GPA) and the Montreal Declaration by
actions at the international, regional and national levels to:
(a) Facilitate partnerships, scientific research and diffusion of technical
knowledge; mobilise domestic, regional and international resources; and promote human and
institutional capacity building, paying particular attention to the needs of developing
countries;
(b) Strengthen the capacity of developing countries in the development of their
national and regional programmes and mechanisms to mainstream the objectives of the GPA
and to manage the risks and impacts of ocean pollution;
(c) Ratify, accede and implement the conventions, protocols and other relevant
instruments of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) relating to the enhancement
of maritime safety and protection of the marine environment from marine pollution;
environmental damage caused by ships including from invasive alien species in ballast
water; and the use of toxic anti-fouling paints;
(d) Implement the recommendation contained in paragraph 21 (h) of CSD decision 9/1
regarding international maritime transportation and transboundary movement of radioactive
material.
31. Improve the scientific understanding of marine and coastal ecosystems as a
fundamental basis for sound decision-making, through, actions at the global, regional and
national levels to:
(a) Increase scientific and technical collaboration at the global and regional
levels including the appropriate transfer of marine science and marine technologies and
techniques on conservation and management of living and non-living marine resources and
expanding ocean observing capabilities for timely prediction and assessment on the state
of marine environment;
(b) Build capacity in marine science, information and management, through, inter
alia, promote use of environmental impact assessments and environmental evaluation and
reporting techniques, for projects or activities that are potentially harmful to the
coastal and marine environments and their living and non-living resources;
(c) Strengthen the ability of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC)
of UNESCO and other relevant international and regional organizations.
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32. Develop and implement a global programme of action to reduce the impact of
disasters and enhance the international mechanisms established for the International
Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) for coordination and monitoring of its
implementation. International, regional and national actions are required to:
(a) Encourage the international community to provide the necessary financial means
to the Trust Fund for the ISDR;
(b) Address vulnerability to natural disasters and disaster reduction based on a
multi-hazard approach including to establish and strengthen the institutional
capabilities of countries, promote international joint observation and research,
disseminate technical and scientific knowledge;
(c) Implement wetland and watershed restoration, better land-use planning and
improved drainage, develop and apply techniques and methodologies for assessing the
potential adverse effects of climate change and provide assistance to vulnerable
countries to mitigate this impacts;
(d) Encourage dissemination and use of traditional and indigenous knowledge to
mitigate the impact of disasters;
(e) Establish a global early warning system, in the framework of the ISDR and in
cooperation with WMO, UNEP, FAO and other stakeholders, as the nucleus for a global early
warning network, which should be integrated with national, regional, and international
mechanisms;
(f) Establish effective global, regional, sub-regional, and national strategies and
institution involving medium and long–term actions and international support to prevent,
mitigate and repair the damage by providing technical, scientific, and financial
assistance;
(g) Promote cooperation in the prevention, reduction, relief and post-disaster
rehabilitation of major technological and other disasters with an adverse impact on the
environment in order to enhance the capabilities of affected countries to cope with such
situations.
******
33. [Recalls the United Nations Millennium Declaration, in which Heads of State and
Government resolved to make every effort to ensure the entry into force of the Kyoto
Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, preferably by the
tenth anniversary of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in
2002, and to embark on the required reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases, and calls
upon States to work cooperatively towards achieving the ultimate objective of the United
Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. ] International, regional and national
actions are required to:
(a) Provide technical and financial assistance and capacity building to developing
countries and countries with economies in transition in accordance with the Marrakech
Accords for the implementation of the UNFCCC;
(b) Build scientific and technological capabilities and networks for the exchange
of scientific data and information especially in developing countries;
(c) Promote the systematic observation of the Earth’s atmosphere by improving
ground-based monitoring stations, increasing use of satellites, and appropriate
integration of these observations to produce high-quality data that could be disseminated
for the use of all countries, in particular developing countries;
(d) Implement a strategy for integrated global observations to monitor the Earth’s
atmosphere with the cooperation of relevant international organizations, especially the
United Nations specialized agencies in cooperation with the UNFCCC secretariat;
(e) Support the Artic Council initiative to assess the environmental, social and
economic consequences of climate change on the Arctic as well as on the Antarctic, in
particular the impact on local and indigenous communities.
34. Enhance cooperation at the international, regional and national level to reduce
air pollution, transboundary air pollution and acid deposition with actions to:
(a) Strengthen capacities of developing countries and countries with economies in
transition to measure, reduce and assess the impacts of air pollution, including the
health impacts and provide financial and technical support for these activities;
(b) Take measures to address illegal traffic in ozone depleting substances (ODS);
(c) Facilitate implementation of the Montreal Protocol by ensuring adequate
replenishment of its fund by 2003/2005;
(d) Improve access to affordable, accessible, cost-effective, safe and
environmentally sound alternatives to ozone-depleting substances, ODS, by developing
countries, by 2010 and assist them in complying with the phase-out schedule under the
Montreal Protocol.
******
35. Agriculture plays a crucial role in addressing the needs of a growing global
population, and is inextricably linked to poverty eradication, especially in developing
countries. Sustainable agriculture and rural development (SARD) is essential to the
implementation of an integrated approach to increasing food production and enhancing food
security and food safety in an environmentally sustainable way. This would include
international, regional and national actions to:
(a) Realize the “right to food,” as stated in Article 11 of the Covenant on
Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, as a means to promote food security and fight
hunger in order to reach the Millennium Declaration target to halve, by the year 2015,
the proportion of the world’s people who suffer from hunger;
(b) Develop and implement land and water-use plans that are based on optimal use of
renewable resources and on integrated assessments of socio-economic and environmental
potentials and strengthen the capacity of governments, local authorities and communities
to monitor and manage the quantity and quality of water resources;
(c) Increase understanding of the sustainable use, protection and management of
water resources to advance long-term sustainability of freshwater, coastal and marine
environments;
(d) Promote programmes to enhance the productivity of land and the efficient use of
water resources in agriculture, forestry, wetlands, artisanal fisheries and aquaculture,
especially through indigenous and local community-based approaches;
(e) Integrate existing information systems on land-use practises by strengthening
national research and extension services and farmer organisations to trigger farmer-to-
farmer exchange on good practices such as those related to environmentally sound, low-
cost technologies with the assistance of relevant international organisations;
(f) Enact, as appropriate, measures that protect indigenous resource management
systems and support the participation of all appropriate stakeholders in rural planning
and local governance;
(g) Adopt policies and implement laws that guarantee well-defined and enforceable
land and water use rights and promote legal security of tenure, recognizing the existence
of different national laws and/or systems of land access and tenure, and provide
technical and financial assistance to developing countries that are undertaking land
tenure reform;
(h) Reverse the declining trend in public sector finance and provide appropriate
technical and financial assistance to support efforts in developing countries and
countries with economies in transition to strengthen agricultural research and natural
resource management capacity;
(i) Employ market-based incentives for agricultural enterprises and farmers to
monitor and manage water use and quality, inter alia, by applying methods such as small-
scale irrigation, waste water recycling and reuse;
(j) Enhance access to existing markets and develop new markets for value-added
agricultural products;
(k) Improve substantially market access, and to reduce, with a view to phasing out,
all forms of exports subsidies and trade-distorting domestic support;
(l) Increase brown fields redevelopment in developed countries and countries with
economies in transition where contamination is a serious problem;
(m) Enhance international cooperation to combat illicit crops.
******
36. Strengthen the implementation of the United Nations Convention to Combat
Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification,
particularly in Africa (UNCCD) to restore land for agriculture as well as to address
poverty resulting from land degradation. This would include international, regional and
national actions to:
(a) Mobilize adequate and predictable financial resources, transfer of technologies
and capacity-building at all levels;
(b) Formulate national action programmes to ensure timely and effective
implementation of the UNCCD and its related projects with the support of the
international community, including through decentralized projects at the local level;
(c) Encourage synergies, with due regard to their respective mandates, between the
United Nations Framework Convention of Climate Change, the Convention on Biological
Diversity and the UNCCD through various channels, in the elaboration and implementation
of plans and strategies under the respective conventions;
(d) Integrate measures to combat and prevent desertification into relevant policies
and programmes, such as land and water management, agriculture, rural development,
environmental, energy, natural resources, health and education and poverty reduction
strategies;
(e) Provide affordable local access to information to improve monitoring and early
warning related to desertification;
(f) Call on the next Assembly of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) to consider
(i) the recommendations of the GEF Council concerning the designation of land degradation
(deforestation and desertification), as a focal area of the GEF; and consequently (ii)
the role of the GEF in the UNCCD, taking into account the prerogatives and decisions of
the Conference of the Parties, according to the provisions of the Declaration of Caracas
and the Ministerial Message from Praia on the implementation of the UNCCD
(g) Improve the sustainability of grassland resources through strengthening
management and law enforcement and providing financial and technical support by the
international community to developing countries.
******
37. Mountain ecosystems include significant watershed resources, biological
diversity, unique flora and fauna, and many are particularly fragile and vulnerable to
the adverse effects of climate change. Develop and promote programs, policies and
approaches that integrate environment, economic and social components of sustainable
mountain development and strengthen international cooperation particularly at the
regional and sub-regional levels through agreements, treaties and conventions. This
would include international, regional and national actions to:
(a) Implement programs to address, where appropriate, deforestation, erosion, land
degradation, loss of biodiversity, disruption of water flows and retreat of glaciers;
(b) Develop and implement, where appropriate, policies and programs, including
public and private investments, that help eliminate inequities facing mountain
communities, particularly for women;
(c) Implement programs to promote diversification and traditional mountain
economies, sustainable livelihoods and small scale production systems, including better
access to national and international markets, communications and transport planning,
taking into account the particular sensitivity of mountains;
(d) Promote full participation and involvement of mountain communities in decisions
that affect them and to integrate indigenous knowledge, heritage and values in all
development initiatives;
(e) Mobilize national and international resources with a view to promote
investments, applied research and capacity building.
******
38. Promote sustainable tourism development including non-consumptive and eco-
tourism, taking into account the spirit of the International Year of Eco-tourism 2002 and
UNESCOs International Year of Cultural Heritage in 2002, the draft CBD guidelines for
sustainable tourism and the global code of ethics for tourism as adopted by the World
Tourism Organisation in order to increase the benefits from tourism resources for the
population in host communities, while maintaining the cultural and environmental
integrity of the host communities and enhancing the protection of ecologically sensitive
areas and natural heritages. To ppromote sustainable tourism development and capacity
building in order to contribute to the strengthening of rural and local communities. This
would include international, regional and national actions to:
(a) Enhance international cooperation, foreign direct investment and partnerships
with both private and public sectors at all levels;
(b) Develop programmes that encourage people to participate in eco-tourism and
enhance stakeholder co-operation in tourism development and heritage preservation to
improve the protection of the environment, natural resources and cultural heritage;
(c) Provide technical assistance to developing countries and countries with
economies in transition to support sustainable tourism business development and
investment, tourism awareness programmes to improve domestic tourism, and to stimulate
entrepreneurial development;
(d) Assist host communities to manage visitation to their tourism attractions for
their maximum financial benefit whilst ensuring the least negative impact on and risks
for their traditions, culture and living environment. It is further recommended that the
World Tourism Organisation and other relevant organisations facilitate the implementation
in their Member States
(e) Promote the diversification of the economic activities, including through the
facilitation of access to markets and commercial information, and participation of
emerging local enterprises, especially SMEs.
******
39. Biodiversity plays a critical role in overall sustainable development and is
essential to our planet and human well being and is being lost at unprecedented rates due
to human activities. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is the key instrument for
the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity and to put in place by 2010
measures to halt biodiversity loss at the global, regional, sub-regional and national
levels requires actions at all levels to:
(a) Incorporate and mainstream the objectives of the CBD into global, regional and
national sectoral and cross-sectoral programmes and policies, in particular in the
programmes and policies of donor countries and funding agencies;
(b) Implement the CBD and its provisions through national and regional action
programmes, in particular the national biodiversity strategies and action plans, and
strengthen their integration into relevant cross-sectoral strategies, programs and
policies including those related to sustainable development and poverty eradication;
(c) Supplement domestic actions to promote concrete international support and
partnership for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and unique
ecosystems as well as the world heritage sites, through the appropriate channeling of
financial resources and technology to developing countries
(d) Promote and support initiatives of multi-stakeholders for the conservation of
hotspot areas and promote the development of national and regional ecological networks,
in order to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity, recognizing the importance of the
ecosystem approach;
(e) Strengthen national, regional and international efforts on invasive alien
species as one of the main causes of biodiversity loss and encourage implementation of
and continued work on the proposed CBD guiding principles on invasive alien species;
(f) Preserve and maintain traditional knowledge relevant to biological diversity
and promote its wider application in decision and policy-making in consultation with and
participation of indigenous and local communities, while recognizing the ownership rights
of the knowledge and the need to apply appropriate benefit-sharing mechanisms;
(g) Encourage technical and financial support to developing countries in their
efforts to conserve, enhance, catalogue, and secure sui generis systems for the
protection of traditional knowledge particularly in its application of sustainable
methods of production, with a view to conserving biodiversity;
(h) Promote the wide implementation of and continued work on the proposed CBD Bonn
Guidelines as a framework for access to genetic resources and equitable sharing of
benefits from their use as well as the adoption of a national strategy on access and
benefit sharing, including appropriate legislative and administrative measures;
(i) Ensure successful conclusion of existing processes under the World Intellectual
Property Organization Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic
Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore, and in the Ad Hoc Open-ended Group on
Article 8 (j) and related provisions of the CBD, to ensure that benefits derived from the
use of genetic materials and traditional knowledge are fairly and equitably shared,
particularly with sources countries and with indigenous and local communities;
(j) Promote an effective and transparent framework for access to the results and
benefits arising from biotechnologies based upon genetic resources, in accordance with
article 19 of the CBD;
(k) Urge countries to become parties of the biodiversity related international
agreements and provide the necessary financing, technology transfer and capacity-building
support to developing countries to facilitate their effective implementation.
******
40. Forests and trees cover nearly one third of the earth’s surface. Sustainable
forest management of both natural and planted forests is essential to achieving
sustainable development and is a critical means to eradicate poverty, reduce land and
resource degradation, improve food security as well as access to safe drinking water and
affordable energy, and contributes to the well-being of the planet and humanity.
Achievement of sustainable forest management, globally, is an essential goal of
sustainable and will require actions at all levels to:
(a) Support sustainable forest management as a priority on the international
agenda, and o enhance political commitment, taking full account of the linkages between
the forest sector and other sectors through integrated approaches;
(b) Support the United Nations Forum on Forests and the Collaborative Partnership
on Forests, as key intergovernmental mechanisms to facilitate and coordinate the
implementation of sustainable forest management at the national, regional and global
levels;
(c) Take immediate action on domestic forest law enforcement and illegal
international trade in forest products, including in forest biological resources, with
the support of the international community, to provide human and institutional capacity-
building related to the enforcement of national legislation in those areas;
(d) Take immediate action to promote and facilitate the means to achieve
sustainable timber harvesting;
(e) Develop and implement initiatives to address the needs of those parts of the
world that currently suffer from poverty and the highest rates of deforestation and where
international cooperation would be welcomed by affected Governments;
(f) Create and strengthen partnerships and international cooperation to facilitate
the provision of increased financial resources, transfer of environmentally sound
technologies, trade, capacity-building, forest law enforcement and governance at all
levels, and integrated land and resource management to implement sustainable forest
management, including the IPF/IFF proposals for action;
(g) Accelerate implementation of the IPF/IFF proposals for action by countries and
the Collaborative Partnership on Forests and intensify efforts on reporting to the United
Nations Forum on Forests to contribute to an assessment of progress in 2005.
******
41. Mining, minerals and metals are important to the economic and social
development of many countries. To enhance the contribution of mining, minerals and metal
to sustainable development, actions at international, regional and national levels are
required to:
(a) Address the environmental, economic, health and social impacts and benefits of
mining, minerals and metals, including workers’ health and safety, throughout their
lifecycle and use existing mechanisms, including partnerships arrangements among
interested governments, intergovernmental organizations and other stakeholders to promote
greater efforts, transparency and accountability for sustainability of the mining and
minerals industry;
(b) Enhance the participation of local and indigenous communities to play an active
stakeholder role in minerals, metals and mining development through the life cycles of
mines, including after its closure;
(c) Provide adequate financial, technical and capacity building support to
developing countries, and countries with economies in transition, to optimize the mining
and processing of minerals, including small-scale mining, improve value added processing,
and reclamation and rehabilitation of degraded sites.
V. Sustainable Development in A Globalizing World
42. The potential of globalization to promote sustainable development for all
remains yet to be realized. Efforts at international, regional and national levels are
required to make globalization equitable, inclusive and responsive to the needs of the
developing countries. Actions will be required at all levels to:
(a) Adopt and implement coherent and sound macroeconomic policies and develop
institutional capacities;
(b) Create an open, equitable, rule-based, predictable and non-discriminatory
multilateral trading and financial system that benefits all countries in the pursuit of
sustainable development;
(c) Enhance the capacities of developing countries, including the least developed
countries, land-locked developing countries and small island developing states, to
benefit from liberalized trade opportunities, through international cooperation and
measures aimed at improving productivity, commodity diversification and competitiveness,
community based entrepreneurial capacity, and transportation and communication
infrastructure development;
(d) Apply the precautionary approach of the Rio Declaration while avoiding its
misuse that may restrict exports from developing countries;
(e) Increase trade related technical assistance and capacity building programmes
including in the trade and sustainable development interface;
(f) Ensure that preferential trade scheme supports sustainable development and
reduce or eliminate environmentally harmful subsidies;
(g) Establish and strengthen existing regional trade and cooperation agreements
between industrialized and developing countries and countries with economies in
transition as well as among developing countries, as appropriate, with the support from
international finance institutions and regional development banks, and integrate
sustainable development objectives into such agreements;
(h) Make foreign direct investment more supportive of sustainable development and
encourage international and regional institutions, as well as institutions in source
countries, to promote increasing investment flows to developing countries and to assist
developing countries in their efforts to create a conducive domestic enabling environment;
(i) Assist developing countries and countries with economies in transition in
narrowing the digital divide and harnessing the potential of information and
communication technologies for development;
(j) Reduce global financial volatility by adopting better and more transparent
forms of financial market regulation including through, inter alia, the implementation of
Monterrey Consensus;
(k) Strengthen the capacities of developing countries by increasing assistance from
multilateral financial institutions for public/private initiatives that improve access,
accuracy, timeliness and coverage of information on countries and financial markets;
(l) Promote corporate responsibility and accountability and the exchange of good
practices, including through public/private partnerships and voluntary initiatives
[building, inter alia, on the UN Global Compact and the OECD Guidelines for Multilateral
Enterprises, as appropriate ], as well as by using tools such as environmental management
accounting and environmental reporting;
(m) Provide assistance to developing countries to promote impact assessments that
identify trade, environment and development linkages and related policy measures.
VI. Health and Sustainable Development
43. The Rio Declaration states that human beings are at the centre of concerns for
sustainable development, and that they are entitled to a healthy and productive life in
harmony with nature. The goals of sustainable development can only be achieved in the
absence of a high prevalence of debilitating illnesses while population health requires
poverty eradication. There is an urgent need to address the causes of ill health and
their impact on development, with particular emphasis on women and children, as well as
other vulnerable groups of society such as people with disabilities, elderly persons, and
indigenous people.
44. Strengthen the capacity of healthcare systems to deliver basic health services
to all in an efficient, accessible and affordable manner aimed at preventing, controlling
and treating diseases and to reduce environmental health threats and, to this end, take
measures to:
(a) Integrate health concerns of the most vulnerable populations into strategies,
policies and programmes for poverty eradication and sustainable development;
(b) Ensure equitable and enhanced access to affordable and efficient healthcare at
the primary, secondary and high complexity levels and access to essential and safe drugs,
at affordable prices, immuniz

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