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Chairman’s Summary of the Multistayeholder Dialogue Segment of PrepCom 2 for WSSD

—– Original Message —–
From: “csd-un Listmanager” To:
Sent: Wednesday, February 06, 2002 2:51 AM
Subject: Chairmans Summary – Multi-stakeholder Dialogue

> From: “Zehra Aydin”
> Below please find copy of the Chairman뭩 Summary of the Multi-stakeholder Dialogue
Segment of PrepCom 2 for WSSD.
> With best regards.
> Zehra Aydin Sipos
> Major Groups Relationship Coordinator
> Johannesburg Summit Secretariat
> United Nations
> Chairman뭩 Summary of the Multi-stakeholder Dialogue Segment
> 1. The second preparatory committee of the World Summit on Sustainable Development
included a multi-stakeholder dialogue segment from 29-31 January 2002, involving all nine
major groups of Agenda 21 and governments. The segment consisted of four sessions within
the Committee뭩 meeting, starting with a plenary discussion focusing on the overall
progress achieved and hotspots for future action, continuing with two parallel discussion
groups (one on integrated approaches to sectoral and cross-sectoral areas of sustainable
development and the other on enabling and promoting multi-stakeholder participation in
sustainable development institutions) and a final plenary aiming to identify new
opportunities for partnerships to implement sustainable development.
> General Observations
> 2. The dialogues showed enthusiasm among governments and major groups to engage in
partnerships and develop implementation initiatives for achieving sustainable
development. It was agreed that accountable, responsible, innovative and equal
partnerships are crucial for integrated approaches to sustainable development. Such
partnership would also recognize that the fundamental principle of sustainable
development is diversity and not seek a monoculture of views. Rather than seeking one
common vision, efforts would acknowledge diversity but agree to work on finding the areas
of commonality and take action in partnership on these areas and goals.
> 3. All participants highlighted the many opportunities that exist for partnership at
all levels, but particularly at the local and national levels. A proposal called for
local councils for sustainable development, to enhance the work of the councils at the
national level. There was general agreement to further explore the potential partnerships
identified, such as those between NGOs and Local Authorities (aiming for poverty
eradication and rural development), youth and young professionals (on issues of
unemployment and youth participation), business and other major groups (on issues of
corporate accountability) and trade unions and local authorities (on promoting local and
workplace based initiatives).
> 4. The discussions also explored issues related to participation mechanisms. There was
an overall agreement on the need to institutionalize the multi-stakeholder dialogue
process at all levels to enhance partnerships for sustainability. Participants strongly
favored the involvement of major groups in decision-making at all levels, following a
bottom up and rights-based approach to the governance of sustainable development
implementation processes. A framework for multi-stakeholder participation that would
enhance participation and facilitate partnerships was considered a necessary and
constructive step. It was highlighted that such a framework should ensure a level playing
field, be transparent, and based on mutual trust and respect for rights.
> 5. There was overall agreement that poverty alleviation and economic stability are key
to environmental and social sustainability. Proposals were made for more focus on decent
employment and sustainable job creation, particularly for women, youth, and vulnerable
groups. There were strong calls for increased cooperation between all actors to address
issues in areas such as mining, land ownership, resource management, privatization of
public utilities (especially water sector), changing production and consumption behavior,
monitoring corporate activity, and reducing corruption.
> 6. The growing debt burden of developing countries was raised as a priority, and some
major groups appealed for debt cancellation. Numerous major group participants also
offered ideas for alternative financing measures. Among those ideas put forward were a
self-financing World Marshall Plan to combat poverty, and a proposal for an international
energy fund. Major groups also suggested priority be given to investments in education,
training and strengthening the knowledge base, and capacity building in science and
technology, especially in developing countries and among women, youth, indigenous peoples
and marginalized sectors of society.
> 7. Knowledge, information access, sustainable development education and related
training were raised as key elements of accelerating implementation efforts. The need for
innovations in science and technology to help alleviate poverty and address issues
related to water, energy and climate change was highlighted. Numerous calls were made for
improved monitoring of the Earth뭩 systems and free access to the resulting data. Offers
for cooperation were made by the Scientific community in a variety of areas including
dissemination of science and technology, increasing access to information and
communication, efficiency in production processes, energy, and education.
> 8. Major groups supported regional and local approaches to sustainable development. The
success of local initiatives and partnerships were acknowledged, and strong calls were
made for further capacity building at the local level. Building capacity for effective
major group participation, as well as disseminating best practices were strongly
> 9. Most participants supported increased participation by young people at all levels of
governance. It was also agreed that gender is a critical issue and gender-disaggregated
data and information would need to be further developed. Various major groups proposed
adding other groups to the on-going dialogue on sustainable development, such as
Educators, the Media, the Advertising Industry, the Consumers and the Consumer Protection
> 10. Peace and stability were also seen as prerequisites of sustainable development, and
calls were made for inter-governmental support for major group participation in this
area. The importance of promoting the values and ethics of sustainable development was
raised in this context.
> Summaries of the Sessions
> Opening Plenary: general discussion on progress achieved and hotspots
> 11. In their opening statement, Women recalled Agenda 21뭩 identification of women as
stewards of the environment and essential actors in sustainable development, and
presented a number of successes in Africa and Asia where solutions to land acquisition
and alternative banking systems were initiated through women뭩 efforts. Youth pointed to
successes with youth-to-youth initiatives and youth-led programs dealing with issues such
as HIV/AIDS, and noted with appreciation the gradual increase in the inclusion of youth
in country delegations.
> 12. Successes noted by indigenous people included increased transnational partnerships,
their inclusion as a major group in Agenda 21, the establishment of the UN Permanent
Forum on Indigenous Peoples, examples of national laws and policies to protect indigenous
peoples?rights, and their increased participation at the international level. NGOs
recalled the success of UNCED in building a conceptual link between environment and
development, forging the basis for a North-South deal, and introducing sustainable
development as a global objective; as well as the pioneering efforts since UNCED for
dialogues between government and civil society.
> 13. Local authorities noted successes in delivering sustainable development through
Local Agenda 21 initiatives in which long-term approaches to planning and multi-
stakeholder participation are integral elements, and pointed out that cumulative local
actions translate to national success. Successes identified by the Trade Unions included
an emerging vision for addressing issues through public policies, and meaningful efforts
to include sustainable development concepts in health and safety through joint action in
the workplace. They highlighted the importance of giving priority to the social dimension
of sustainable development, and in particular to the linkage between employment and
poverty eradication, in the next phase of work.
> 14. Business and industry highlighted progress in partnership initiatives and success
in seeing sustainable development as good business, and provided several examples to
demonstrate these points. Scientific and technological communities praised progress
achieved in reducing uncertainties regarding the functioning of the Earth, noted success
in new scientific ventures aiming for sustainable development and highlighted the need
for partnerships between the social and economic disciplines as well as among
> 15. Farmers noted progress made in acknowledging the role of farmers, sustainable
management of resources, increased partnerships, institutional and economic reforms for
decentralized decision making to include farmers at local levels, new policies and
programs to strengthen the role of women to achieve food security, improved quality of
agricultural products and reduced environmental impacts, and sustainable farming through
certification schemes and awareness campaigns.
> 16. A number of barriers to progress were highlighted by different major groups
> (a) The growing poverty gap especially in rural areas,
> (b) Failure to meet the goal of allocating 0.7% of national GNP to ODA,
> (c) Continuing marginalization of women, lack of gender equality in government
policies, the continuing gap between men뭩 and women뭩 access to and management of
resources, and poorly implemented obligations of governments and other stakeholders,
> (d) Lack of support for formal and non-formal education,
> (e) Failure to stem corruption,
> (f) Lack of political commitment to the existing legal frameworks shown by the low rate
of ratification of the Kyoto and Cartagena Protocols, as well as lack of adequate follow-
up to the non-binding agreements; and insufficient support for other international
instruments such as the UN Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and the
various ILO Conventions on workers?and indigenous peoples?rights,
> (g) Lack of proper, reliable and participatory monitoring of implementation of binding
and non-binding agreements related to sustainable development,
> (h) Inadequate efforts to change unsustainable consumption and production patterns,
particularly in developed countries; and continuing unsustainable practices that
adversely affect indigenous and local communities, as well as women and youth,
> (i) Lack of adequate national plans and basic institutional frameworks for sustainable
> (j) Inadequate efforts to tackle detrimental impacts of globalization on health,
livelihood, food security, industrial relations, and culture among other areas,
> (k) Increasing conflicts over land and resources between indigenous and local
communities, and corporate actors,
> (l) Lack of programs to regulate sources of environmental degradation, address global
development governance and outline plans for implementation and compliance,
> (m) Insufficient attention to address the adverse impacts of globalization,
deregulation, privatization and WTO policies,
> (n) Rising military conflicts and increasing financial allocations to defense budgets,
> (o) Insufficient scientific and professional expertise, especially in developing
> (p) Poor coordination and cooperation between governmental institutions and the
resulting fragmentation of policies and programs related to sustainability,
> (q) Lack of political will to promote joint workplace approaches to change,
> (r) Lack of sufficient commitment to ensure national and international good governance,
> (s) Insufficient efforts for sustainable development education; inadequate access to
knowledge, information, and other resources, as well as lack of capacity, and
> (t) Lack of youth participation in decision-making in general.
> 17. Statements from Egypt and the EU strongly supported the focus on poverty
eradication and partnerships but also appealed to the major groups for their help with
identifying concrete deliverables for the Summit and for sustainable development work
beyond this milestone. Bangladesh and others emphasized participation and integration of
the multi-stakeholder dialogue processes as a key instrument for successful sustainable
development action in the community, workplace and at the national level. The EU
underscored its commitment to support NGO participation in decision-making processes in
sustainable development at all levels in the WSSD framework, and Japan supported creation
of information platforms for NGO activities. Governmental and non-governmental
participants supported partnership-based approaches to future sustainable development
implementation efforts.
> 18. There was general support for greater participation of civil society in trade
related intergovernmental spheres, such as the WTO negotiations, as a way to ensure more
equitable benefits from globalization. In response to calls made by stakeholders on its
increased role in sustainable development, the ILO confirmed its commitment. Discussion
on corporate accountability and better dialogue led to an invitation by NGOs to business
and industry to work together in this area. Business and industry accepted, and other
stakeholders also indicated interest in participating.
> 19. There was overall support for a greater role for science and technology to
formulate comprehensive scenarios for the future and collaborate with other stakeholders
in building on local scientific capacity, especially in developing countries. The role of
media and education was reflected in Hungary뭩 support for considering Media and
Educators as major groups. There was support for active engagement of youth in the
national councils for sustainable development.
> 20. Participants made a number of proposals including:
> (a) Integrating multi-stakeholder participation into national sustainable development
planning processes;
> (b) Strengthening partnerships among governments, intergovernmental bodies, and major
groups based on accountability and transparency;
> (c) Taking a rights-based approach to sustainable development;
> (d) Strengthening the CSD and the role of major groups within this body;
> (e) Guaranteeing women뭩 rights and ensure their full participation in enabling
sustainable economic, environmental and social development; and achieving gender balance
in government institutions by 2005;
> (f) Convening a youth summit prior to WSSD, and including youth in the official
government delegations to the Summit;
> (g) Creating government departments or agencies for youth in all nations by 2005;
> (h) Allocating 20% of ODA to sustainable development education and to sustainable
development initiatives of young people; and integrating sustainable development into all
education programs;
> (i) Creating information exchange platforms for NGOs and other major groups;
> (j) Designing operational plans for future sustainable development work on the basis of
common but differentiated responsibilities and the precautionary principle;
> (k) Reviving the North-South compact that was reached in Rio;
> (l) Launching a process for a framework convention on corporate accountability;
reforming international financial institutions; and regulating financial markets;
> (m) Using the workplace as basis for tackling public health problems such as HIV/AIDS;
> (n) Strengthening the capacity of local authorities to build on their proven successes;
recognizing local leadership in generating best practices and local cooperation;
> (o) Supporting local programs, including those in the workplace, to promote sustainable
production and consumption;
> (p) Using the principle of prior informed consent as a standard crucial to promoting
and protecting indigenous peoples?right to self-determination; and
> (q) Convening a conference of scientists in parallel with the Johannesburg Summit.
> Discussion Group I: Progress achieved in applying integrated approaches to sectoral and
cross-sectoral objectives of sustainable development.
> 21. Participating major groups highlighted some successes in integrated approaches,
including: increased willingness to take responsibility for environmentally sustainable
development; use of low-tech options for health and sanitation, agriculture, energy and
conflict reduction; creating business management systems to encompass all aspects of
sustainability; and involvement by many communities in the Local Agenda 21 programmes.
> 22. A number of challenges and priority areas that could benefit from more integrated
approaches were identified, including:
> (a) Prioritizing issues of poverty and inequality,
> (b) Seeing economic stability as a prerequisite for sustainability,
> (c) Seeing the workplace as a tool for integrated approaches,
> (d) Addressing unemployment,
> (e) Ensuring access to affordable and secure water and energy resources,
> (f) Investing in agriculture to address rural poverty and support the role of farmers,
> (g) Increasing interdisciplinary scientific research,
> (h) Increasing cooperation for sustainable development education at all levels,
> (i) Increasing awareness of sustainable production and consumption,
> (j) Meeting the agreed ODA targets and seeking synergies with private investment,
> (k) Eliminating corruption in public and private sectors,
> (l) Mainstreaming gender and developing gender-disaggregated data, and
> (m) Developing science and technology that integrates the three pillars of sustainable
development using participatory approaches involving relevant stakeholders.
> 23. In the course of the dialogue, many governments supported suggestions for
integrated efforts for sustainable development in formal and non-formal education
initiatives, youth participation, access to scientific and technological information and
data resources, and cooperation among stakeholders and across sectors. Brazil supported
the important role of scientific research and development in capacity building and data
provision. Samoa and the Republic of Korea stressed regional and sub-regional development
models in addressing issues such as climate change, and access to water and energy
> 24. Indonesia and the UK stressed poverty eradication, efforts to focus on the social
dimensions of sustainable development; and the rights of women, indigenous people, and
workers. Sweden supported the suggestion to restore the role of the ILO.
> 25. A number of governments, including South Africa, Nigeria, and Finland supported
suggestions on the need to tackle the adverse impact of globalization and trade
liberalization by creating a new sustainable development paradigm, addressing the
problems raised in relation to industry through stakeholder participation. Hungary
highlighted the desire for a 뱊ew global deal?to emerge from the WSSD process. The
Netherlands and Germany highlighted the power of consumer organizations in changing
unsustainable production and consumption behavior. Sweden, Austria and many others
supported calls for gender mainstreaming and analysis, integrating the rights of women,
and youth participation.
> 26. Participants made proposals toward further integration and achievement of sectoral
and cross-sectoral goals of sustainable development, some of which present potentials for
future partnerships. These proposals included:
> (a) Focusing on poverty alleviation through employment and sustainable job creation,
(particularly for women, youth, and vulnerable groups), and on innovations in science and
technology in the areas of water, energy and climate change;
> (b) Developing an integrated set of poverty indicators;
> (c) Seeking alternative financing measures (proposals for a self-financing World
Marshall Plan to combat poverty, and for an international energy fund);
> (d) Prioritizing investments in education, training, agriculture and capacity building
in science and technology, especially in developing countries;
> (e) Building capacity at the community level to enhance local initiatives;
> (f) Using consumer markets to influence production and consumption patterns;
> (g) Fostering accountable, responsible and innovative partnerships and cooperation
among all relevant sectors in areas such as mining, land ownership, food security,
resource management, production and consumption behavior, monitoring corporate activity,
and corruption;
> (h) Developing targets and timetables for phasing out harmful subsidies that promote
unsustainable development;
> (i) Increasing sustainable energy sources to 5% of total energy use by 2010;
> (j) Supporting sustainable development education at all levels, including the
development of related curricula, links with vocational programs, and databases for
pedagogical processes;
> (k) Increasing support for scientific and research data collection for monitoring the
Earth뭩 systems; and
> (l) Increasing representation and participation by youth at all levels.
> Discussion Group 2: Progress achieved in enabling and promoting multi-stakeholder
participation in sustainable development institutions and mechanisms
> 27. Stakeholders highlighted a number of successful multi-stakeholder processes.
Farmers mentioned two programs in South Africa: the Working for Water program that
contributes to water security and creates jobs, and the use of bio-solids to enhance soil
quality. Scientific communities pointed to human genome mapping, advances in climatology
for effective monitoring and prediction of natural disasters, and the Montreal Protocol
process as examples of successful partnerships between scientists and governments.
Business and industry noted the Global Mining Initiative and the FAO multi-stakeholder
dialogues (instituted in follow up to CSD-8 recommendations) as examples of success.
> 28. Trade unions highlighted successful worker participation models from Croatia,
Germany and other European countries, on occupational health and safety. They also shared
experience with government-worker partnerships in Italy to protect ports from toxic
releases from shipping. Local authorities referred to the role of local governments in
multi-stakeholder participation and the steady improvement of stakeholder consultations
through Local Agenda 21 (LA21) efforts and reported that such efforts now exist in over
6,000 localities in 113 countries. They highlighted national government support as a key
element of success and shared examples from Uganda on legal frameworks that support women
뭩 and youth participation in local councils. National local agenda 21 campaigns (such as
those in Turkey, Japan and the Republic of Korea), have demonstrated that LA21 processes
are effective approaches to sustainability and conflict resolution.
> 29. NGOs highlighted models of participation such as the work of the World Commission
on Dams that pioneered an effective multi-stakeholder decision making process, as well as
the Mediterranean CSD, and the numerous National Councils for Sustainable Development.
Examples of success pointed out by Indigenous People included the establishment of the
Permanent Forum on Indigenous Peoples at the UN, the Inter-Indigenous Forum on
Biodiversity in the CBD process, the Arctic Council, and the Saami Agenda 21 process in
> 30. Women referred to progress in bringing women into the decision-making process in
Nordic countries, India, France, Namibia, South Africa, Brazil and the Philippines, thus
proving that gender balance is possible where there is political will. Scientific and
technological communities highlighted the Multi-stakeholder Round on Energy for
Sustainable Development held in collaboration with UN DESA earlier this month in India as
an example of successful collaboration between scientists and other major groups.
> 31. In the dialogue that followed, Denmark reiterated the positive experience of the
Arctic Council in creating a participatory process; the EU pointed to the Barcelona
Convention on Protecting the Baltic Sea as another example of success, and Turkey
referred to its continuing efforts to engage young people in decision-making processes.
> 32. Brazil, Bangladesh and the Philippines highlighted their positive experiences in
including major groups in their national preparatory processes for the WSSD. Japan
pointed out that, with the collaboration of ICLEI, a network of 150 LA21 initiatives is
in place in the country, and that this experience is now being expanded in neighboring
countries such as China and the Republic of Korea; and announced a symposium on LA21
initiatives in April 2002 in Yokohama, being organized as a contribution to WSSD.
> 33. Stakeholders also identified numerous barriers to enabling and promoting multi-
stakeholder participation and achievement of sustainable development, including:
> (a) Weak capacity to participate, lack of access to knowledge across borders, and
institutional means to empower local communities,
> (b) Lack of adequate institutional frameworks for dialogue, including clearly defined
mechanisms, partners, and indications of outcomes,
> (c) Lack of necessary governmental frameworks that assure a level playing field for the
expansion of sound businesses,
> (d) Detrimental policies of the World Bank, IMF and other financial institutions; and
adverse impact of privatization and globalization on rights and empowerment,
> (e) Diminishing support for small farmers, distortions to international trade, drain on
local farming communities from armed conflict, detrimental effects of subsidies on the
farming sector, and growing poverty in the rural sector,
> (f) Growing inequality between and within countries, and the growing power and
influence of the corporate sector,
> (g) Inequality in participation among major groups especially regarding the influence
of business, and lack of recognition of diversity among parties involved,
> (h) Lack of education and awareness about sustainable development issues,
> (i) Lack of gender perspectives and mainstreaming in national and international
> (j) Inadequate attention to work place health, with specific reference to HIV/AIDS as
one of the most pressing workplace issues of our time, and
> (k) Use of power to overcome conflict, and inadequate emphasis on peace and security as
an essential prerequisite for sustainable development.
> 34. In response, Belgium agreed with the NGOs that the playing field is anything but
level in terms of equity of major group participation. The Republic of Korea also
stressed the key importance of poverty reduction, especially in rural areas.
> 35. A number of proposals and suggestions for future action were made including:
> (a) Giving stakeholders greater role in the decision-making process and increasing
their institutional capacity in this process;
> (b) Improving equity of opportunity to participate in the stakeholder process including
support for the participation of marginalized groups;
> (c) Formulating a global framework for a convention on participation in decision-
making, using as a basis existing frameworks such as the Aarhus Convention, and several
regional initiatives seeking to implement Principle 10 of Rio Declaration;
> (d) Encouraging independent monitoring of Agenda 21 implementation (such as the Access
> (e) Strengthening the multi-stakeholder dialogue framework at all levels;
> (f) Setting regional capacity building mechanisms through collaboration between major
groups and the UN;
> (g) Promoting a more balanced form of decentralization of responsibility in which
devolution of power and provision of services is accompanied by adequate sharing of
resources and authority;
> (h) The development of ecosystems approach to sustainable development planning;
> (i) Increased ODA and technical assistance to place priority on capacity building; and
building capacity of peasant organizations to participate;
> (j) Considering financing for sustainable development in the FFD process;
> (k) Adding good governance as the fourth pillar of sustainable development;
> (l) Simplification of the UN accreditation process;
> (m) Developing more user friendly UN web pages to increase access to information;
> (n) Establishing a clearinghouse for dissemination of best practices and lessons
learned in sustainable development;
> (o) Creating a multi-lateral framework for production and trade that includes the
principles of the right of all countries to protect domestic markets, the precautionary
principle, democratic participation, and a ban on all forms of dumping;
> (p) Canceling un-payable debts of developing countries and abolishing Structural
Adjustment practices;
> (q) Enabling closer relationship between the scientific community and policy makers;
> (r) Utilizing the capacity of the scientific and technological communities to support
governments and major groups in the adaptation of intellectual property concepts, and in
improving information networks and infrastructure;
> (s) Recognizing core ILO labor standards;
> (t) Providing the necessary tools to ensure health and safety standards within the
production processes;
> (u) Providing political and financial support for a youth conference before WSSD;
> (v) Formulating a UN resolution to facilitate partnership for peace; and
> (w) Developing programs to prevent violence.
> 36. In response, the Czech Republic agreed with local authorities about the need for
balanced decentralization and further stated that all stakeholders should be equal
partners and involved in negotiations of the WSSD process. Denmark emphasized the
importance of participation of local governments in the WSSD negotiation process and
stressed the importance of continuous brainstorming and solicitation of views of other
stakeholders, such as the private sector, in creating a global deal framework for
> 37. The EU emphasized the need to step up participation of women and indigenous
people. It further stated that the business sector has a responsibility and must inform
consumers of the environmental consequences of the products they create. Turkey supported
the call of youth for more sustainable production and consumption patterns. It also
stated skepticism about the regional process and suggested sub-regional approaches.
Indonesia stated the need to explore mechanisms that translate partnerships between major
groups and governments, and among major groups, into concrete action and emphasized the
importance of an action-oriented focus in the WSSD process.
> 38. Brazil and Sweden agreed that broad participation in decision-making processes is
essential to guarantee effective implementation of policy and projects. China maintained
that governments should provide a good environment for participation of major groups.
Japan stressed the importance of networking among major groups to enhance active
participation. Belgium stressed the importance of sharing experiences and nuances in
different mechanisms implemented since Rio. Bangladesh and Israel supported Hungary뭩
proposal from the previous day to include Educators and Media as additional Major groups.
In addition, Israel proposed the addition of the advertising sector given its critical
role in gaining consumer trust. It also supported the spread of public awareness and
understanding of the concept of sustainable development through increased efforts by the
UN, and through national plans on education for sustainable development developed with
the active participation of youth and !
> business.
> Closing Plenary: Discussion on New Opportunities for Implementation
> 39. The co-chairs of the two Discussion Groups summarized the key points made. Major
groups elaborated on these summaries by reiterating a number of points including the need
to: provide sustainable development education; increase support for local governments;
fund capacity building for science and technology to stimulate employment and reduce
poverty; expand the knowledge base to incorporate traditional knowledge and make
information accessible in order to create employment, facilitate technology transfer,
create alternative financing and debt relief solutions; address conflicting social values
and restructure markets to encourage sustainable development behavior; and change
unsustainable production and consumption patterns. All participants stressed partnership
initiatives as essential to implementation.
> 40. Farmers specifically stressed the need for governments to invest in agriculture and
ensure access to land and resources. Scientific communities emphasized health and the
need for more focus on medical research and population issues. Indigenous people linked
poverty eradication to territorial security, economic and natural resource control, and
supported self-determination of models of development to manage communities and recovery
of ecosystems using traditional methods. Women stressed the need for time-bound targets.
Trade unions prioritized workplace partnerships based on core workers?rights, with a
focus on bottom-up processes to ensure engagement in the workplace. NGOs stressed the
precautionary principle as a sovereign right. Youth called on governments to achieve the
UN Millennium Declaration goals.
> 41. Many supported statements by Tuvalu and Indonesia that the social pillar of
sustainable development should more fully recognize the human spiritual dimension and
incorporate ethics and cultural values into sustainable development education. In this
connection, trade unions questioned the ethics of privatization and deregulation. Women
and indigenous peoples called for closer review of how ODA is spent. Ghana raised the
issue of biopiracy. Bangladesh supported mainstreaming the concept of sustainable
development in national planning and expressed confidence in the role of the media to
help ensure this.
> 42. Indonesia and Brazil supported major group concerns on technology access, noting
that the digital divide must be bridged to ensure equitable sharing of benefits from
globalization. Japan reiterated a commitment to support dialogue networks. Scientific
communities stressed that capacity building in developing countries requires commitment
of all governments, and cautioned against the trends of shifting resources from the
public to the private sector. The EU expressed commitment to work toward improving access
to information and called on the science and technology community to contribute to
cleaner technology development, especially in the energy sector. South Africa stressed
that WSSD should focus on seeking time-bound targets and concrete measures for technology
transfer, highlighting the potential role of the private sector in this regard. Business
and industry noted that technology transfer is a process. The EU noted the importance of
including actions by all levels o!
> f government in the plans emerging from WSSD.
> 43. Many endorsed stronger interaction between governments and stakeholders in
realizing outcomes, increased participation of major groups in UN processes and
strengthening the CSD as the primary intergovernmental body dealing with sustainable
development. The Netherlands underscored the importance of promoting diversity in all
three sustainable development pillars. Turkey emphasized the need for local partnerships
and China connected an increase in stakeholder participation to enhanced cooperation at
the international level. South Africa elaborated a number of points on further
implementation of Agenda 21, calling for high-level political commitment and encouraging
debate at the national level.
> 44. The following additional proposals were made:
> (a) Promoting cooperation among civil society and governments to create initiatives for
sustainable production and consumption behavior;
> (b) Adopting targets and timetables for increased use of renewable energy;
> (c) Mobilizing partnerships among business and industry, governments, labor and civil
society to address globalization in the form of tangible projects;
> (d) Recognizing the role of the private sector in sustainable energy development;
> (e) Managing water as a finite economic resource and shared cultural asset;
> (f) Strengthening the CSD as an institution of global sustainable development
> (g) Building capacity in science and technology through collaboration among research
institutions, the private sector and governments;
> (h) Developing action plans to ensure equal access to information; and
> (i) Placing food security and rural development on the WSSD agenda, with a focus on
even, just and well-structured markets and investment in agriculture, as well as
achieving economic sustainability for small farmers.



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